By Daniel V. Schroeder
This article seems at thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. half I introduces innovations of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics from a unified view. components II and III discover extra purposes of classical thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. all through, the emphasis is on real-world functions.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Thermal Physics
No other sections depend on it, so you may omit or postpone it if you wish. 37 38 Chapter 1 Energy in Thermal Physics energy is transferred through molecular collisions: When a fast molecule hits a slow molecule, energy is usually transferred from the former to the latter. In solids, heat is conducted via lattice vibrations and, in metals, via conduction electrons. Good electrical conductors tend to be good heat conductors as well, because the same conduction electrons can carry both electric current and energy, while lattice vibrations are much less efficient than electrons at conducting heat.
Then estimate the cost of replacing this lost energy over the course of a month. If possible, compare your estimate to a real utility bill. 6 MJ. In the United States, natural gas is billed in therms, where 1 therm = 10 5 Btu. 60. A frying pan is quickly heated on the stovetop to 200°C. It has an iron handle that is 20 cm long. Estimate how much time should pass before the end of the handle is too hot to grab with your bare hand. (Hint: The cross sectional area of the handle doesn't matter. 45 J/g·°C).
Traditionally, however, heat has been measured in calories, where 1 cal was defined as the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a gram of water by 1°C (while no work is being done on it). It was James Joule (among others*) who demonstrated that the same temperature increase could be accomplished by doing mechanical work (for instance, by vigorously stirring the water) instead of adding heat. 2 J. 186 J, and many people still use this unit when dealing with thermal or chemical energy.
An Introduction to Thermal Physics by Daniel V. Schroeder