By William N. Venables, David M. Smith
This guide offers an creation to "R", a software program package deal for statistical computing and portraits. R is loose software program, dispensed below the GNU normal Public License. it may be used with GNU/Linux, Unix and Microsoft home windows.
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For unordered factors k − 1 columns are generated for the indicators of the second, . . , kth levels of the factor. ) For ordered factors the k − 1 columns are the orthogonal polynomials on 1, . . , k, omitting the constant term. Although the answer is already complicated, it is not the whole story. First, if the intercept is omitted in a model that contains a factor term, the first such term is encoded into k columns giving the indicators for all the levels. Second, the whole behavior can be changed by the options setting for contrasts.
4 Editing data When invoked on a data frame or matrix, edit brings up a separate spreadsheet-like environment for editing. This is useful for making small changes once a data set has been read. The command > xnew <- edit(xold) will allow you to edit your data set xold, and on completion the changed object is assigned to xnew. If you want to alter the original dataset xold, the simplest way is to use fix(xold), which is equivalent to xold <- edit(xold). frame()) to enter new data via the spreadsheet interface.
Table() function To read an entire data frame directly, the external file will normally have a special form. • The first line of the file should have a name for each variable in the data frame. • Each additional line of the file has as its first item a row label and the values for each variable. If the file has one fewer item in its first line than in its second, this arrangement is presumed to be in force. So the first few lines of a file to be read as a data frame might look as follows. ☛ ✟ Input file form with names and row labels: 01 02 03 04 05 ...
An Introduction to R by William N. Venables, David M. Smith