By Mukul Sarkar
Biological structures are a resource of thought within the improvement of small self sufficient sensor nodes. the 2 significant sorts of optical imaginative and prescient platforms present in nature are the only aperture human eye and the compound eye of bugs. The latter are one of the such a lot compact and smallest imaginative and prescient sensors. the attention is a compound of person lenses with their very own photoreceptor arrays. The visible procedure of bugs lets them fly with a restricted intelligence and mind processing energy. A CMOS photograph sensor replicating the notion of imaginative and prescient in bugs is mentioned and designed during this e-book for commercial (machine imaginative and prescient) and scientific functions.
The CMOS steel layer is used to create an embedded micro-polarizer in a position to feel polarization info. This polarization details is proven to be beneficial in purposes like genuine time fabric type and self sustaining agent navigation. additional the sensor is supplied with in pixel analog and electronic stories which enable version of the dynamic diversity and in-pixel binarization in actual time. The binary output of the pixel attempts to copy the flickering impression of the insect’s eye to realize smallest attainable movement in keeping with the swap in kingdom. An built in counter counts the alterations in states for every row to estimate the course of the movement. The chip involves an array of 128x128 pixels, it occupies a space of five x four mm2 and it's been designed and fabricated in an 180nm CMOS CIS technique from UMC.
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Organic structures are a resource of suggestion within the improvement of small self reliant sensor nodes. the 2 significant varieties of optical imaginative and prescient structures present in nature are the only aperture human eye and the compound eye of bugs. The latter are one of the so much compact and smallest imaginative and prescient sensors. the attention is a compound of person lenses with their very own photoreceptor arrays.
Extra resources for A Biologically Inspired CMOS Image Sensor
42 2 Natural and Artificial Compound Eye Spots on the optimized angles of incidence Fig. 20 Channel seven: Light spots on the detector. There is an angular resolution of 1°. 2 Fig. 1 43 Image Mapping and Distortion Correction The captured images from the multiple lens optical system are processed to reconstruct the proper image. Each optical channel captures light from a certain FOV, but due to the mapping of spherical angular distribution onto a square detector, overlapping of the FOVs is not completely avoidable.
The focal depth of the APCO system is large, due to the extremely short focal length of the micro-lenses. The group of Duparre also developed a compound eye imaging system with a chirped micro-lens array. In the chirped micro-lens array, the optical axis direction, aperture size and shape of the micro-lenses are determined according to the view angle of the optical channel. The chirped micro-lens reduces the aberrations significantly and improves the image quality. Compound eye based imaging system using spherical structure has also been reported .
A major problem with artificial compound eyes is the inverse relationship between resolution and sensitivity. The optical power increases with the diameter of the pinhole array however the resolution decreases. The superposition eyes solves this problem by optically summing the light from various optical channels. The micro-lens diameter D influences the sensitivity through the micro-lens numerical aperture. The numerical aperture expresses the ability of a lens to resolve fine details in the object being imaged.
A Biologically Inspired CMOS Image Sensor by Mukul Sarkar